The physical mechanisms that trigger coronal mass ejections

Author: Francesco Zuccarello Affiliation: Observatoire de Paris, Paris Abstract: Solar filaments are magnetic structures often observed in the solar atmosphere and consisting of plasma that is cooler and denser than their surroundings. They are visible for days – and even weeks – which suggests that they are often in equilibrium with their environment before erupting,[…]


Plasma-surface interactions in the Solar System: Mercury-Ganymede-Europa comparison

Author: Anna Milillo Affiliation: INAF/IAPS, Rome Abstract: The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the[…]


Physical basis of solar spectropolarimetry

Author: Egidio Landi degl’Innocenti Affiliation: University of Florence Abstract: Solar spectropolarimetry was born more than a century ago when Hale observed the signature of the Zeeman effect in the spectrum of a sunspot, thus discovering the presence of a magnetic field on a cosmic object, the sun. Things have dramatically evolved since those times, both[…]


Effects of expansion on solar wind turbulence

Author: Andrea Verdini Affiliation:UPMC, LESIA and LPP Abstract: Magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind have power-law behaviour over approximately five decades in frequency. The common interpretation is that of a turbulent cascade: the energy residing in large-scale motions is transferred through a cascade towards small scales where it is finally dissipated. After introducing the basic[…]


Scaling features of geomagnetic field’s fluctuations as indicators of magnetospheric conditions

Author: Paola De Michelis Affiliation: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia – Via di Vigna Murata 605, Roma Italy Abstract: The activity of Earth’s magnetosphere is characterised by sporadic perturbations involving broad ranges of spatial and temporal scales. The characteristics of the geomagnetic signals associated with magnetospheric activity depend on geomagnetic disturbance level and consequently[…]


Properties of Coronal Mass Ejections and related phenomena derived from visible-light and ultraviolet observations

Author: R. Susino Affiliation: INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino Abstract: Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are one of the most impressive manifestations of the Sun’s activity and also one of the major drivers of Space Weather. During CMEs huge amounts of solar gas and magnetic field are released into the interplanetary space. As CMEs expand[…]


The THOR mission: Exploring turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization in space plasmas

  Author: Maria Federica Marcucci and the THOR team Affiliation: INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, 00133 Roma, Italy Abstract: The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent magnetized plasmas where particles are heated and accelerated as a result of energy dissipation in turbulent environments. It is of key importance to study and understand how plasma[…]


Recent advances in solar wind turbulence: what are we learning from data?

Author: Luca Sorriso-Valvo Affiliation: CNR/Nanotec, Rende, Italy. Abstract: Solar wind measurements provided by spacecraft represent an invaluable chance to study space plasma turbulence in situ. Important advances have been made in the understanding of the processes that determine the properties of the solar wind fluctuations and cause small-scale energy “dissipation”. Some of the aspects include[…]


Modelling solar energetic particle events: the shock-and-particle model approach.

Author: Angels Aran Affiliation: Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos. Universitat de Barcelona. Abstract: Europe is working towards developing its own infrastructure for the monitoring and prediction of space weather. This includes the study of solar energetic particle (SEP) events, with the ultimate goal of predicting the particle radiation environment[…]